Spring wheat is used almost exclusively as a bread wheat. The mill industry demands supreme quality wheat which is then mixed with winter wheat. The bakery industry has extremely stringent demands in terms of quality – the bread has to take on a certain colour when baking, it has to rise to certain heights, contain no air bubbles, etc.
Historically, winter wheat has constituted the basis for a lot of cereal production. Winter wheat is now used to a great extent for the production of feed and ethanol, as well as being used in the mill and bakery industries. Ethanol is used to produce vodka and as a fuel additive.
Spring wheat is bred in Svalöv, Sweden and aims to produce spring wheat varieties to be cultivated mainly in Scandinavia, the Baltic States, Germany, Poland and the UK. Desirable qualities Baking quality. As spring wheat is used almost exclusively as a bread wheat, cultivation of it focuses on properties important to the mill and bakery industries. They make stringent demands of baking quality – including high bulk density, high protein content, high protein quality, good dough stability and resistance against field germination.
Besides quality properties, the cultivation programme aims to produce varieties with a high yield, good straw strength and good resistance to disease, so reducing the need for biocides. For northern cultivation areas, early ripening is another important quality.
To achieve a stable yield and low use of chemical biocides, resistance against fungal disease is very important. In Scandinavia, the most serious diseases of spring wheat are mildew, Septoria tritici and yellow leaf spot in wheat. In warm, dry areas, resistance to brown leaf rust is also very important. Fusarium is one example of a disease that’s spread more and more and so has an enormous impact on the industry.